Measurements of OZone, water vapour, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides by in-service AIrbus airCraft
MOZAIC was initiated in 1993 by European scientists, aircraft manufacturers and airlines to better understand the natural variability of the chemical composition of the atmosphere and how it is changing under the influence of human activity, with particular interest in the effects of aircraft. MOZAIC consists of automatic and regular measurements of reactive gases by five long range passenger airliners. A large database of measurements (about 30,000 flights since 1994) allows studies of chemical and physical processes in the atmosphere, validations of global chemistry transport models and satellite retrievals. MOZAIC data provide detailed climatologies of trace gases at 9-12 km where subsonic aircraft emit most of their exhaust and which is a very critical domain (e.g. radiatively and Stratosphere-Troposphere exchanges) still imperfectly described in existing models. MOZAIC data also provide frequent vertical profiles over a large number of airports (Frankfurt, Paris, Vienna, New-York, Atlanta, Tokyo, Beijing, Sao Paulo, Johannesburg, ...).
In 1994-2004, MOZAIC has been co-funded by the European Commission, national institutes (INSU-CNRS, FZJ, Météo-France, University of Cambridge) and supported by airlines (Lufthansa, Air France, ex-Sabena, Austrian).
In 2004-2009, MOZAIC has been funded by national institutes (INSU-CNRS, FZJ and Météo-France) and supported by the airlines. The transformation of the MOZAIC data bank into a data base and its extension to the IAGOS-ERI data base is cofunded by ETHER (Thematic Assembly Center, CNES and INSU-CNRS).
The research project MOZAIC evolves towards the European Research Infrastructure IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System) that is described below.